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KRATOM

OVERVIEW

Kratom is a tree. The leaves are used as a recreational drug and as medicine.

As a recreational drug, the leaves are chewed or drank as a tea to elevate mood (as a euphoriant) and enhance physical endurance.

As a medicine, kratom is used for anxiety, cough, depression, diabetes, diarrhea, high blood pressure, pain, to improve sexual performance, and to lessen symptoms of opiate withdrawal.

How does it work?

Kratom contains a chemical called mitragynine. Mitragynine works like opioid drugs such as codeine and morphine to relieve pain.

USES & EFFECTIVENESS
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for
Anxiety.
Cough.
Depression.
Diabetes.
Diarrhea.
High blood pressure (hypertension).
Opiate withdrawal.
Pain.
Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of kratom for these uses.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

SIDE EFFECTS
Kratom is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for most people when taken by mouth. It can cause dependence and withdrawal symptoms when taken regularly.

Kratom can cause many side effects when taken by mouth, including nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, frequent need to urinate, constipation, aggression, hallucinations, delusions, and thyroid problems.

People who use kratom regularly and then stop taking it may experience decreased appetite, diarrhea, muscle pain, muscle spasms, twitches, watery eyes, anxiety, trouble sleeping or restlessness, negative mood changes, tension, anger, nervousness, hot flashes, and fever.

There is also concern that the sedative effects of kratom might cause people to breathe too slowly. This might prevent people from getting enough oxygen.

QUESTION
Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ____.
See Answer
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS & WARNINGS
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking kratom if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Alcoholism: People with alcohol dependence who use kratom appear to have an increased risk of suicide compared to those who use kratom but are not dependent on alcohol.

Mental disorders: In theory, kratom might worsen existing mental disorders. Also, people with mental disorders who use kratom appear to have an increased risk of suicide compared to those who use kratom but do not have a mental disorder.

INTERACTIONS
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Kratom might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking kratom, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Kratom might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom with these medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking kratom, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin (Coumadin), and many others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 [CYP2D6] substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Kratom might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking kratom, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), flecainide (Tambocor), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), ondansetron (Zofran), paroxetine (Paxil), risperidone (Risperdal), tramadol (Ultram), venlafaxine (Effexor), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Kratom might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking kratom along with some medications that are broken down by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of these medications. Before taking kratom, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include cyclosporin (Neoral, Sandimmune), lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), indinavir (Crixivan), sildenafil (Viagra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Modafinil (Provigil)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Seizures have been reported in a person who took kratom along with the drug modafinil (Provigil). It is not yet known how taking this combination might cause seizures. Until more is known, people taking modafinil (Provigil) should avoid using kratom.

DOSING
The appropriate dose of kratom depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for kratom. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Source: https://www.rxlist.com/kratom/supplements.htm

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